Few things like heating give your home a sense of coziness and comfort in the winter. That’s why having a reliable way to heat their house is essential in the eyes of homeowners. Whether you’re looking to update your home or are on the market for a new house, you might wonder, “Which is better, forced air vs. baseboard heating?”
Whether forced air or baseboard heating is better for you depends on several factors. Forced air is more efficient, heats faster, and has a longer lifespan. Baseboard heating is less expensive to install, won’t spread air contaminants, and requires less maintenance.
However, there are far more points to consider. Here’s what you need to know if you’re trying to choose between forced air vs. baseboard heating.
Contents (Jump to Topic)
- Forced Air vs. Baseboard Heating: Key Points
- What Is Forced Air Heating?
- What Is Baseboard Heating?
- What’s the Difference Between Baseboard Heat and Forced Air?
- Which Is Better, Baseboard Heat or Forced Air?
Forced Air vs. Baseboard Heating: Key Points
Technically, both forced air and baseboard heating can heat most homes reasonably effectively. However, each has unique advantages and disadvantages, so homeowners need to factor their needs and preferences into the equation.
Knowing how forced air and baseboard heat stand apart makes it easier to select a system that works best for you and your home. Here are some key points to consider.
|Forced Air Heating||Baseboard Heating|
|Types||Electric furnace, gas furnace, heat pump, hydronic coil||Electric or hydronic|
|Heating Unit Location||Low-traffic areas, such as in an attic, basement, garage, or mechanical closet||Heating units are on a wall in the room they’re heating, usually below a window|
|Heating Principle||Involves pulling air into the system, heating that air, and then directing it into the home through vents||Relies on passive convection where the heater warms nearby air, causing the warm air to rise and move through the immediate area, with or without using a fan|
|Energy Efficiency||Moderate utility usage, with the amount of energy converted to heat varying by type||Moderate to high utility usage, but 100% of the energy they use is turned into heat|
|Zone or Central||Central, with or without zone control||Zone|
|Components||Can include ductwork, heat pump, furnace||Only involves heating units|
|Installation Design||Potentially complex||Simple|
|Temperature Control||Central thermostat with or without zone control options||Separate temperature control for each heater|
|System Cost||Moderate to very high||Low to moderate|
|Rebate or Tax Credit Availability||Rebates and tax credits may be available||Rebates and tax credits are typically not available|
|Maintenance and Cleaning||Harder to maintain and clean||Relatively easy to clean and maintain|
|Safety and Health||Can spread air contaminants||Can cause burns if touched and may be a fire risk|
|Noise||Ranges from reasonable to noisy||Near-silent operation without fans, may be slightly noisy with fans|
|Cost to Operate||Moderate to low||High to moderate|
|Lifespan||20 to 35 years for heating units, 10 to 25 years for ductwork||10 to 20 years|
What Is Forced Air Heating?
Forced air heating moves warmed air through your home from a centralized unit, such as a heat pump, gas, or electric furnace. Cold air returns draw in cooler air, directing it toward the furnace or heat pump. Then, the heating unit warms the air before sending it through the attached ductwork.
As the heated air moves through the ductwork, the warmth exits vents positioned throughout the home. As a result, a single system can handle all of your heating needs in many cases.
While this approach is a central heat option, some technologies give you some zone control. For example, opening and closing the vents manually is an option. You can also get smart vents with their own thermometers that sense changing conditions in each space and open or close on their own.
Forced Air Heating Pros and Cons
- Heats homes faster
- Heating units don’t take up space in living areas
- Safer for children since heating units aren’t within reach
- More cost-efficient for larger homes
- Zone heating technologies are available
- Requires ductwork
- More expensive to install
- Harder to maintain
- Can spread air contaminants
- Can product noise
What Is Baseboard Heating?
Baseboard heating is a passive convection heating system where the heating unit is physically in the room. Typically, baseboard heaters come in long, bar-like designs, ranging from 3 to 10 feet long and around 4 inches wide.
The way baseboard heaters warm space is reasonably straightforward. It draws in cold air that settles near the floor and warms the air using a heating element or coils. As the temperature of the air increases, the air rises out of the unit and into the room.
Some baseboard heaters have fans that direct the warmed air out, but most are fanless designs, relying simply on the natural rise of warm air to heat a space.
Baseboard Heating Pros and Cons
- More affordable
- Simpler installation
- Runs quiet
- Set different temperatures in each room
- May make more sense for smaller houses
- Takes up wall space
- Can’t place furniture too close
- May be hazardous to children who may touch it
- Slower to heat a room
- Not as cost-efficient for large houses
What’s the Difference Between Baseboard Heat and Forced Air?
While the information above provides most homeowners with a reasonable idea of the difference between forced air vs. baseboard heating, taking a closer look at each point is essential. When you do, you’ll better understand the differences, which could make choosing the right system easier.
Here is an in-depth look at the difference between forced air vs. baseboard heating.
There are multiple types of baseboard and forced air heating systems. For baseboard heaters, you can typically choose between electric and hydronic. For forced air, there are electric furnace, gas furnace, heat pump, and hydronic coil systems.
Electric baseboard heaters rely on heating elements that are warmed using an electric current. Hydronic heaters have a reservoir of non-toxic liquid – such as oil or water – that’s heated, causing them to act similarly to a radiator.
With forced air, electric or gas furnaces are the most commonly used types. The electric versions work similarly to a hair dryer, using electric heating elements to warm the air. Gas furnaces rely on natural gas or propane fuel, which burns to heat air for the system.
Heat pumps don’t generate heat. Instead, they redistribute heat from the ground or air. Some hydronic forced air systems use a radiator principle, so you may have radiators instead of vents to warm spaces. However, there are forced air versions, too.
Also called a combined hydronic air handler, forced air hydronic heating systems use heated water to warm coils. Air moves across the coils to warm it and is pushed through the duct system, sending heated air out of your vents.
Heating Unit Location
The heating unit location is typically incredibly different when you’re comparing forced air vs. baseboard heating. With forced air systems, there’s a central heating unit. It’s typically located in a low-traffic area of the home, such as a basement, attic, garage, or mechanical closet.
For heating rooms, forced air systems usually rely on vents placed strategically throughout the house. There are also cold air return vents, which are typically small and reasonably discrete.
With baseboard heating, the heating units are physically in the rooms. Baseboard heaters are attached to the walls, with the most common placement below exterior windows.
The heating principles involved with baseboard and forced air heating differ. Baseboard heaters generally rely on passive conduction.
With baseboard heating, the unit warms cold air – which settles near the floor. As the air is heated, it naturally rises out of the unit and into the home. Some baseboard heaters also use fans to direct hotter air out, but those aren’t technically required for baseboard heaters to warm a space.
Forced air heating is more active. Cold air comes into the system, usually through cold air returns, and is directed toward the heating unit. The heating unit warms the air and sends it through more ductwork to reach vents.
When it comes to sending warm air into the house, blower fans are involved. That helps push the heated air throughout the ductwork, ensuring it reaches vents further down the path.
The overall energy efficiency of heating systems varies significantly by type. Factors like the size of your home also influence it.
For larger houses, forced air heating is more energy efficient from a utility usage perspective. Heat pumps require less energy overall among the forced air options, typically outperforming even the most efficient electric or gas furnaces. Hydronic forced air systems are also highly energy efficient when it comes to utility demands by comparison.
Electric furnaces are more thermally efficient than gas but typically run more frequently; as a result, gas furnaces often cost less to run.
The efficiency levels vary when the heating unit converting power or fuel to heat energy. Both the heating unit type and its overall operational requirements are factors.
Technically, baseboard heaters are the most energy efficient for utility usage. Baseboard heaters convert 100 percent of the energy they use into heat, so there’s no wasted energy. The issue is that more power or fuel may be necessary to heat larger spaces with baseboard heaters than you’d use with forced air.
Baseboard heating is potentially a better choice with small houses than forced air. Since the spaces are smaller, you aren’t getting the biggest benefit from having a central heating system. You can also reduce utility consumption by choosing hydronic baseboard heaters over electric, as they require less energy to operate.
Zone or Central
Baseboard heating is always a zone-based system. Since the heating units are placed in rooms, they warm those individual spaces. While some heat drift can reach adjacent spaces, there’s typically a heater in every living area, allowing you to control the temperature in each room more effectively.
With forced air, the system is inherently central. Unless you take additional steps to give you zone control, the temperature is managed by a single thermostat.
The issue with forced air is that using one thermostat means you can get temperature variances throughout your home, as only the temperature near the thermostat is monitored. Fortunately, it’s possible to overcome that slightly by using smart vents or manually adjusting them to direct warm air into specific spaces.
The components of a heating system vary depending on the type you’re using. For forced air, you’ll need ductwork, cold air exchange vents, and heat-releasing vents. You’ll also have a heat pump, electric furnace, gas furnace, or hydronic heating unit.
With baseboard heating, the only component is the baseboard heater. There is no ductwork, and you don’t need any vents.
Designing a forced air heating installation is far more intensive than using baseboard heaters. You’ll need to identify the placement of any ductwork runs that usually go inside walls and ceilings. Plus, you’ll have to select a position for the heating unit, which is potentially challenging due to its size.
As a result, installing a forced air system if you don’t have any ductwork currently is a major project. It requires holes in walls and ceilings to position ductwork and may make specific structural changes necessary depending on your wall and ceiling construction.
Comparatively, the installation design for baseboard heating is incredibly simple. It requires little more than choosing a wall location and ensuring access to power. While this can require additional electric wiring or piping for water or oil and changes to your electrical panel, it’s far less involved.
When it comes to temperature control, baseboard heating usually has a separate control on every unit. Most have dials on one end of the baseboard heater, and you simply twist it to set your preferred temperature for that space. Then, an internal thermostat determines when to turn the baseboard heater on and off to maintain the right temperature.
Forced air heating typically uses a single thermostat for the entire house. Depending on the home’s size and layout, as well as the position of the thermostat, this can lead to hot or cold spots. However, you can manually open or close vents to get a better balance.
If you install smart vents for your forced air heating system, you can get some additional automated temperature control. Smart vents will adjust the vents automatically based on information from internal thermostats, which can help regulate temperatures in individual spaces.
Generally, baseboard heaters are far less expensive to install than forced air heating systems. The price varies by size and whether you hire a professional. However, spending between $300 and $1,200 per heater is the norm.
With forced air heating, simply buying the heating unit can cost between $600 and $and $3,200. For installation, you’d pay another $1,000 to $6,000.
If you need ductwork, the total cost for forced air is significantly higher. You might spend between $2,000 and $6,000, though the price could increase if you need to repair walls or ceilings, repaint, or take similar steps.
Rebate or Tax Credit Availability
Generally, you won’t find rebates or tax credits for baseboard heaters. Usually, those are only available when you transition to heating solutions that are deemed more energy efficient.
If you transition from baseboard or similar zone-heating solutions to forced air, you might find rebates from your local utility company. Federal and state tax credits are also potentially available. However, your new system has to align with energy efficiency requirements in both cases, so review the rules in advance before selecting a system if you want to qualify.
Maintenance and Cleaning
The maintenance and cleaning requirements for forced air systems are far more involved than baseboard heating. You’ll need to regularly clean the ductwork – which may require services from a professional – to remove dust, dirt, and debris. Additionally, you’ll have to change the filters frequently.
Central heating units also need regular inspections to ensure connections are tight. Damaged ductwork may need replacing or repairs. At times, recalibrating the thermostat is also necessary.
With baseboard heating, cleaning usually involves little more than dusting to remove buildup. However, you may need to use a vacuum with a crevice tool to remove dust at the start of the cold season, as baseboard heaters sitting idle for months can end up very dusty.
In some cases, safety-related cutoff sensors can malfunction and may need replacing. In electric baseboard heaters, the heating elements can burn out, which may require replacing the elements or the entire unit.
Safety and Health
When it comes to safety and health, there are potential issues with all types of heaters. Usually, the biggest risk for forced air is circulating air contaminants.
With forced air systems, warmed air travels through ductwork. Ducts can collect dust and pollen, grow mold or mildew, and capture viruses and bacteria. Air moving through the ductwork can spread those contaminants through your house, increasing the odds of allergic reactions or illnesses.
Baseboard heaters don’t spread contaminants. However, since the heating elements or coils get hot, contact with them can cause burns. As a result, they aren’t ideal for homes with small children or anyone who may touch the units.
With baseboard heaters, you may also have a higher fire risk. If furniture, curtains, toys, or other items get too close to the unit, the heat may ignite the material, leading to a house fire.
When it comes to noise, baseboard heating is typically quieter than forced air. Most baseboard heaters use fanless designs, so they’re near-silent when they’re on. However, versions with fans aren’t necessarily noisy, though the amount of sound can vary depending on the quality of the unit and the fan size.
With forced air heating, there’s at least some noise. The blowers that move the air create sound, and the air traveling through the ducts can produce some noise. However, it’s usually not enough to highly disrupt your living spaces.
Cost to Operate
Overall, the cost to operate baseboard heaters or forced air heating systems varies significantly depending on several factors. Whether you’re using electric, gas, or hydronic systems plays a role. Similarly, local utility rates in your area and how cold it gets are a factor.
Generally, baseboard heaters require more energy to heat a space on average than forced air. As a result, forced air is less expensive in larger homes, as you’d need multiple baseboard heaters to warm the same amount of space.
For a smaller house, baseboard heating may cost less. Usually, this occurs if you only need a couple of baseboard heaters, as the cost of running them could be less than operating some central heating units.
The lifespan of a forced air system is longer than most baseboard heaters. Electric and gas furnaces usually last 20 to 30 years, while heat pumps and hydronic units last about 20 years.
When it comes to ductwork, the lifespan is usually in the 10-to-25-year range. However, most professionals recommend planning for replacement no later than the 15-year mark, even if it seems to have more life. At that point, deterioration is likely, which reduces the efficiency of your system, increasing operational costs.
With baseboard heaters, the lifespan can be as low as 10 years. However, some units are designed to have lifespans of up to 20 years, particularly if properly maintained.
Which Is Better, Baseboard Heat or Forced Air?
Technically, neither baseboard nor forced air heating is automatically the better choice. Baseboard heat is more affordable and provides zone control, but it’s slower to heat a room and less energy efficient for larger houses. Forced air heating gives you a single heating system that’s more energy-efficient for bigger homes but more expensive to install and harder to maintain. As a result, you need to let your priorities be your guide.
Did you learn everything you wanted to find out about forced air vs. baseboard heating? If so, let us know in the comments. Also, if you know someone who’s trying to choose a heating system, make sure to share the article.